Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα biofuel. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων
Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα biofuel. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων

Παρασκευή, 22 Αυγούστου 2014

Climate-cooling policies threaten food supplies

By Viv Forbes
A warmer, wetter climate with more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would undoubtedly produce more plant growth and more food.
However climate-cooling policies that claim to prevent global warming by throttling the use of carbon fuels will definitely reduce food supply and increase food prices.

The promotion of ethanol for motor fuel is anti-food. This "food for fuel" program has absorbed significant quantities of corn, soy beans, sugar and palm oils. Consequently prices for ethanol crops are higher than they would otherwise be, encouraging farmers to convert land currently devoted to grazing animals and other food crops to growing more profitable crops for ethanol.

Extreme greens also practise plant discrimination, favouring more trees at the expense of natural grasslands and open forest that support many grazing animals. These polices take many forms including planting carbon credit forests, banning regrowth clearing, anti-development zoning and blanket tree protection reserves. All such policies reduce food production from grasslands.

Climate-cooling policies also aim to decrease demand for carbon fuels, including coal, oil, gas and refined motor fuels, by increasing their costs and prices. Modern food production is totally dependent on low-priced carbon fuels for all farming activities. Diesel fuels are needed for cultivation, planting, harvesting and transport; and coal/gas powered electricity for irrigation, processing and distribution. Higher prices for carbon fuels will send some marginal farms out of business. The same policies will reduce profits and production in the fishing industry. All of these policies are anti-food.

Modern food production needs nitrogen fertiliser, which is made from atmospheric nitrogen and natural gas, with carbon dioxide as a by-product. Extreme greens all over the world are delaying and opposing the exploration and production of natural gas, and their carbon taxes are increasing the costs of this key fertiliser.
Finally, climate-cooling policies favour silly schemes like carbon capture and burial, which aims to pump carbon dioxide underground. The promoters should be told that current levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are BELOW those that maximise plant growth and food production. The rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels was a major contributor to increased world food production over the last century. To bury this free plant food is not food-smart.

These unproven solutions to unproven problems are unlikely to change the climate. But there is a 50:50 chance that instead of warming, the globe may cool naturally, which will cause dramatic reduction in food production.

Food is not easily storable and supply and demand are always finely balanced. If natural cooling comes on top of all these man-made anti-food policies, the world will see cascading food shortages.
Viv Forbes
Australia
[pravda.ru] 
21/8/14

Παρασκευή, 28 Μαρτίου 2014

Argentina reclamó ante la OMC contra la Unión Europea por el biodiésel

El Gobierno solicitó a la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) un panel contra la Unión Europea por la imposición de medidas antidumping contra el biodiésel argentino, informó la Cancillería.

Argentina hizo la presentación ante el Organo de Solución de Diferencias de la OMC, al considerar que las medidas europeas "son inconsistentes con el Acuerdo Antidumping de la OMC y el artículo VI del Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles Aduaneros y Comercio (GATT)".



La UE rechazó la primera solicitud de establecimiento de este panel. "Sin embargo, ante un segundo pedido de nuestro país en la próxima reunión del OSD el próximo 25 de abril, el panel quedará formalmente constituido", anticipó el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.

La imposición de derechos antidumping definitivos a fines de noviembre de 2013 por parte de la UE cerró el mercado europeo a las exportaciones argentinas de biocombustible desde entonces.

Argentina se convirtió a partir de 2009 en el principal abastecedor de biodiésel a la UE, con ventas en 2011 por 1.847 millones de dólares que representaron el 13% de las exportaciones argentinas a la UE.

Según señaló la Cancillería en Buenos Aires, "el sector de biodiésel en Argentina se destaca por su sostenibilidad y alto nivel de desarrollo, escala, e integración de toda la cadena productiva y es actualmente uno de los productores más eficientes a nivel global".

  • "La industria europea, en contraposición, se encuentra ampliamente sobredimensionada y desde el año 2012 la UE viene llevando adelante diversas medidas de neto corte proteccionista con el objeto de excluir del mercado europeo el biodiésel argentino", advirtió.

"Argentina mantiene su postura firme de reclamar en los distintos foros contra las barreras proteccionistas que impone la Unión Europea y que perjudican a los países en desarrollo", subrayó la Cancillería.

 [clarin.com]
27/3/14
--
-
 

---

Παρασκευή, 20 Δεκεμβρίου 2013

Biodiésel: Argentina presentó un reclamo a la OMC por la sanción europea

La queja es contra la medida antidumping que encareció las exportaciones a la Unión Europea.

El Gobierno presentó hoy ante la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) un reclamo formal contra la "medida antidumping impuesta" por la Unión Europea (UE) a las exportaciones de biodiésel provenientes de la Argentina, informó la Cancillería, que consideró "arbitraria" la decisión del bloque.
"La manifiesta ilegalidad de la medida decidida por la Unión Europea, su espíritu netamente proteccionista y el perjuicio económico que ocasiona a la industria del biodiésel argentino ha movilizado, sin dilaciones, las acciones pertinentes en el ámbito de la OMC que permitirán satisfacer el reclamo del gobierno argentino", aseguró el Palacio San Martín a través de un comunicado.


Según la Cancillería, "el derecho antidumping aplicado por la Unión Europea, con carácter definitivo a partir del 27 de noviembre, se ubica en un rango de 216,64 a 245,67 euros por tonelada y genera como efecto directo e inmediato el cierre del mercado europeo para el biodiésel argentino, afectando de esa manera exportaciones por un valor superior a 1.500 millones de dólares anuales".

La presentación formulada ante la OMC abre ahora un período de consultas de sesenta días, con objeto de explorar la posibilidad de encontrar una solución de mutuo acuerdo entre las partes.

"Transcurrido el referido plazo, y de no mediar acuerdo, la Argentina estará en condiciones de solicitar la conformación de un Grupo Especial de expertos para resolver la controversia", precisó la cartera a cargo del canciller Héctor Timerman.

La Argentina "es líder mundial en producción de biodiésel. La industria europea, en contraposición, está sobredimensionada y carece de la disponibilidad de materia prima y del nivel de integración vertical que caracteriza a nuestra industria", subrayó el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.
"En lugar de emprender reformas para mejorar su competitividad, la industria europea ha buscado y ha logrado una medida administrativa en Bruselas, totalmente arbitraria, que cierra el mercado europeo a la competencia de los productores eficientes de BIODIESEL, como es el caso de Argentina", completó.
Por su parte, la Cámara Argentina de Biocombustibles (CARBIO) demandará a la Comisión Europea ante el Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea. El abogado que representa a la entidad en Bruselas, Richard Luff, indicó la semana pasada a la agencia AFP que está "preparando un recurso de anulación de la reglamentación".
El letrado estimó que la demanda será presentada a fines de enero y el eje central "se concentrará en las tasas diferenciales a las exportaciones".
La Comisión Europea implementó a fines de noviembre un alza promedio del 24,6% del arancel para adquirir biodiésel producido en Argentina. La medida tendrá una vigencia de cinco años, con la posibilidad de adoptar una prórroga para un nuevo período similar.
 http://www.ieco.clarin.com/economia/Biodiesel-Argentina-presento-OMC-europea_0_1050495387.html
19/12/13 
--
-

---

Σάββατο, 19 Οκτωβρίου 2013

Europa sigue adelante con el plan de subir los aranceles al biodiésel argentino...

Terminó el plazo de dos semanas para observaciones de las partes. La cámara de productores argentinos no logró convencer a la Comisión Europea y se mantiene la propuesta de subir los aranceles hasta un 26%.

A partir del 28 de noviembre, la Unión Europea impondría los temidos aranceles de entre 22% y 26% contra la industria argentina del biodiésel por presunto dumping. Según un comunicado de la Cámara Argentina de Biocombustibles (CARBIO), ese fue el mensaje que escucharon los representantes de los productores durante la reunión con los técnicos de la Comisión Europea celebrada este miércoles en Bruselas.


"La aplicación de esa medida haría colapsar a la industria argentina de biodiesel repercutiendo en toda la cadena sojera, ya que la Argentina fabrica todo su biodiésel sobre la base de la soja", dice el comunicado. Los abogados de CARBIO argumentaron el miércoles que las medidas propuestas contra la Argentina tenían su fundamento en razonamientos "abusivos, técnicamente insostenibles y basados en cálculos artificiales que suponen niveles de renta no realistas para ningún tipo de industria, así como absolutamente incompatibles con las reglas de la Organización Mundial del Comercio".


La Comisión Europea planea enviar a los países de la Unión Europea la propuesta de establecer los elevados derechos de importación al biodiésel argentino para su votación este 22 de octubre. Los productores esperan que cuando se implemente la medida, el 28 de noviembre, el mercado europeo quedará "plenamente cerrado a las exportaciones argentinas (...) generándose una pérdida superior a los mil millones de dólares"


La Comisión Europea informó a principios de mes que había una propuesta firme para aumentar los aranceles de importación del biodiésel procedente de Argentina e Indonesia (de estos dos países proviene el 90% de sus importaciones de biodiésel). En ese momento se abrió un plazo de dos semanas para hacer observaciones antes de que la "Comisión" presentase la propuesta al Consejo Europeo.


Las sanciones contra Argentina surgieron tras la expropiación de YPF a la española Repsol. Primero hubo represalias de España y después vinieron las de la UE. Desde mayo, la UE viene aplicando a los embarques locales un arancel "provisorio del 8%. Las nuevas tasas antidumping se ubican entre el 22% y 26%. Además, a partir del próximo año podría sumarse otro aumento del 6,5%. Es porque Argentina va camino a perder las actuales "preferencias arancelarias" que tiene con la UE.

http://www.ieco.clarin.com/agronegocios/Europa-suba-aranceles-biodiesel-argentino_0_1013299138.html
18/10/13
---

Δευτέρα, 7 Οκτωβρίου 2013

Global food prices expected to remain volatile in coming years, warns UN official.

 
 -
7 October 2013 – Although global food prices have recently stabilized, they are expected to remain volatile over the next few years, the head of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said today, as a ministerial meeting on global food prices kicked off in Rome.

FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva told the meeting, which coincided with the opening of the Committee on World Food Security, that this year’s session was taking place in a less troubled climate than a year ago, when ministers came together in response to the third spike in international grain prices in five years.
“The outlook for international food commodity markets finally looks calmer this year,” he told the meeting, which was attended by some 30 agriculture ministers. “Grain production has rebounded and higher stock-to-use ratios should bring greater stability to prices.”
And while the FAO Cereal Price Index is 20 per cent lower than it was one year ago, this is not the time for complacency, he stated.
“International prices have declined but they are still above their historical levels. And prices are expected to remain volatile over the next years,” he warned.
Mr. Graziano da Silva urged countries to take advantage of the relative calm to prepare for future market turbulence and find lasting solutions to the issues surrounding food price volatility. “If higher and volatile prices are here to stay, then we need to adapt to this new pattern.”
The two critical issues for countries to address are how to help poor small-scale farmers benefit from the higher food prices, and how to protect low-income families who suffer as a result of them, he said.
“The current situation offers an opportunity for farmers to reinvest in agriculture,” he continued, calling for a right set of policies to ensure that small-scale farmers have the means to take advantage of it.
The Committee on World Food Security (CFS), which runs until 11 October, opened today amid urgent calls to build more effective links between international policies and the daily needs of millions of the world’s most vulnerable people.
  • “The latest estimates signal there are nearly 30 million less hungry people in the world in 2013, compared to last year,” Mr. Graziano da Silva said at the opening. “And we continue to progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal hunger target of reducing by half the proportion of the undernourished population between 1990 and 2015.
“I see many challenges ahead of us, but also progress and successful experiences that we can build on,” he added. “We are convinced that working together is the only way forward.”
“Poverty and hunger go hand-in-hand and poverty runs deepest in rural areas,” said Kanayo F. Nwanze, President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). “Let us not forget that rural areas are a key element of any new development agenda and global food security. Let us not forget that investing in smallholder agriculture is the most cost effective way for developing countries to tackle poverty and hunger.”
Ertharin Cousin, Executive Director of the World Food Programme (WFP), said the world needs a strong and effective CFS. “Together, we shoulder an enormous responsibility, but our burdens weigh nothing in comparison to the suffering of the 840 million chronically undernourished people depending on us to get it right.”
In a message delivered by his Special Representative for Food Security and Nutrition, David Nabarro, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called the Committee “the point of reference” for all who seek to achieve the goal of eliminating hunger through collaboration with governments, social movements, farmers’ organizations, business and the research community.
  • “Working with a spirit of trust and mutual accountability, multiple actors are collaborating to address some of the thorniest issues of food security: land tenure; climate change; food price volatility; biofuels; and responsible investment in agriculture,” he noted.
The week-long session will feature two round tables: on biofuels and food security, and investing in smallholder agriculture for food security and nutrition.
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=46204&Cr=Food+Security&Cr1=#.UlLRO1OIzJc
7/10/13
--
-

----

Πέμπτη, 6 Ιουνίου 2013

Η ενεργειακή αξιοποίηση του Βιοαερίου (Α’)

Τραίνο βιοαερίου στη Σουηδία (Πηγή: commons.wikimedia.org)
-- 

Τα απορρίμματα μόνο άχρηστα δεν είναι. Με την κατάλληλη διαχείριση και την επεξεργασία τους μπορούν να αποτελέσουν πρώτη ύλη για την παραγωγή καυσίμου (επί της ουσίας φυσικού αερίου) του οποίου οι οικολογικοί δείκτες είναι σαφώς καλύτεροι από αυτούς των υγρών καυσίμων (πετρελαίου και βενζίνης).
Γράφει ο Χρήστος Ζαφείρης, ΜSc
Υπεύθυνος Δέσμης Έργων Βιοαερίου
Κέντρο Ανανεώσιμων Πηγών Ενέργειας (ΚΑΠΕ), Τμήμα Βιομάζας
Το βιοαέριο παράγεται από την αναερόβια χώνευση κτηνοτροφικών κυρίως υποπροϊόντων, όπως είναι τα λύματα των χοιροστασίων, πτηνοτροφείων, βουστασίων καθώς και άλλων αγροτοβιομηχανικών μονάδων (σφαγεία, τυροκομεία, ελαιουργεία, οινοποιεία, ιχθυοτροφεία κ.α.) λύματα των βιολογικών καθαρισμών, από ενεργειακά φυτά (καλαμπόκι, σόργο) καθώς και από την αποσύνθεση του οργανικού κλάσματος απορριμμάτων (Διάγραμμα 1).
 
Biogas_dia_01
Διάγραμμα 1: Mονάδα παραγωγής βιοαερίου (Πηγή: RAMBOLL)

Το βιοαέριο αποτελείται κυρίως από μεθάνιο (CH4) 55-70% και διοξείδιο του άνθρακα (CO2) 30-45%. Επίσης περιέχει ελάχιστες ποσότητες άλλων αερίων, όπως άζωτο, υδρογόνο, αμμωνία και υδρόθειο, η δε θερμογόνος δύναμή του κυμαίνεται από 20 έως 25 MJ/m3.
Το βιοαέριο μπορεί να τροφοδοτήσει μηχανές εσωτερικής καύσης, (ΜΕΚ), καυστήρες αερίου ή αεριοστρόβιλους για την παραγωγή ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας και  θερμότητας.
Το βιοαέριο μπορεί επίσης να χρησιμοποιηθεί ως καύσιμο μεταφορών, μετά την διαδικασία του καθαρισμού, δηλαδή την απομάκρυνση των σωματιδίων H2S, NH3, H2O και την αναβάθμισή του, δηλαδή την απομάκρυνση CO2 και προσθήκη προπανίου (Διάγραμμα 2).
Biogas_dia_02
Διάγραμμα 2: Χρήσεις βιοαερίου (Πηγή: X. Ζαφείρης/ΚΑΠΕ)
Χρήση του βιοαερίου ως καύσιμο μεταφορών απαντάται στη Σουηδία, Ελβετία, Γαλλία και Γερμανία ενώ στη Σουηδία και στη Γερμανία, το βιοαέριο διοχετεύεται και στο δίκτυο του φυσικού αερίου.
Oι τεχνικές που έχουν αναπτυχθεί έως σήμερα για την αναβάθμιση του βιοαερίου είναι κυρίως οι εξής: απορρόφηση νερού, Pressure Swing Absorption (PSA), χημική απορρόφηση, απορρόφηση με διαλύτη διμεθυλαιθέρων πολυαιθυλενικής γλυκόλης (Selexol) (Εικόνα 1) και διαχωρισμός με μεμβράνες. Σε στάδιο ανάπτυξης βρίσκεται η κρυογονική διαδικασία που λαμβάνει χώρα σε συνθήκες πίεσης 80 bar και ψύξης -162οC. Στις συνθήκες αυτές το CO2 συμπυκνώνεται σε υγρή μορφή σε χαμηλότερη πίεση και υψηλότερη θερμοκρασία από ότι το CH4 και έτσι μπορεί να διαχωριστεί.
Biogas_01
Εικόνα 1: Μονάδες αναβάθμισης βιοαερίου στη Σουηδία (Πηγή: Owe Jonsson, Swedish Gas Center)

Το Βιοαέριο Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση
Στις χώρες της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, λειτουργούν 9.243 μονάδες βιοαερίου (με στοιχεία του 2010). Οι δύο χώρες που εμφανίζουν τη μεγαλύτερη παραγωγή βιοαερίου στην Ευρώπη είναι η Γερμανία και το Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο. Η συνολική παραγωγή βιοαερίου ανήλθε σε 4 εκ. ΤΙΠ το 2004, 4,9 εκ. ΤΙΠ το 2005, 5,35 εκ. ΤΙΠ το 2006, 6,0 εκ. ΤΙΠ το 2007, 7,5 εκ ΤΙΠ το 2008, 8,3 εκ. ΤΙΠ το 2009, και 8,7 εκ. ΤΙΠ το 2010.
Ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον παρουσιάζει η περίπτωση της Σουηδίας. Σύμφωνα με στοιχεία του Swedish Gas Center, το 2010 λειτουργούσαν 233 μονάδες, με συνολική παραγωγή βιοαερίου 1,3 TWh/y (TWh ανά έτος).
Από τις ανωτέρω μονάδες 139 είναι βιολογικοί καθαρισμοί, 70 XYTA, 13 κεντρικές μονάδες συνδυασμένης χώνευσης, με συνολική παραγωγή βιοαερίου 0,56 TWh/y, 0.46 TWh/y και 0,16 TWh/y αντιστοίχως. Επίσης υπάρχουν 48 μονάδες αναβάθμισης βιοαερίου, 169 σταθμοί διανομής βιοαερίου, από τους οποίους 122 είναι δημόσιοι, 18 σταθμοί διανομής βιοαερίου ειδικά για λεωφορεία (slow filling bus) καθώς και 32.000 οχήματα που κινούνται με μεθάνιο, εκ των οποίων τα 30.100 είναι επιβατικά, 500 φορτηγά και 1.400 λεωφορεία. Είναι επίσης αξιοσημείωτο ότι στη Σουηδία κινείται τρένο με βιοαέριο ως καύσιμο, το οποίο προέρχεται από λύματα αγελάδων.
Το σύνολο των πωλήσεων αερίου στη Σουηδία το 2010 εκτιμήθηκε σε 92.000 kNm3, εκ των οποίων το 65,3% (60.000 kNm3) αφορά βιομεθάνιο, και το υπόλοιπο αφορά το φυσικό αέριο. Το βιομεθάνιο που πωλείται στα πρατήρια καυσίμων στην Σουηδία ακολουθεί τις προδιαγραφές Swedish standard, SS 155438, που αναπτύχθηκαν από το STG Technical Group number 85, και διακρίνεται σε ‘βιομεθάνιο τύπου Α’ για οχήματα που δεν διαθέτουν αισθητήρα λ  και ‘βιομαθάνιο τύπου Β’ για οχήματα που διαθέτουν αισθητήρα (Πίνακας 1).
Πίνακας 1
Χαρακτηριστικά Βιοαέριου κίνησης στην Σουηδία, βάση προδιαγραφών SS 155438
                                                    Μονάδες           Βιοαέριο Α        Βιοαέριο Β        Μέθοδος
Δείκτης Wobbe                         MJ/m3                44,7-46,4           43,9-47-3          SS-ISO 6976
CH4 (273K, 101,3kPa)              %                         97 ±1                  97±2                   ISO 6974
H20                                              mg/m3                32                       32                       SS-EN ISO 10101-1
CO2 +O2+N2                                %                         4                          5                          ISO 6974
Ολικό S                                      mg/m3                23                       23                       ISO 6326-1-2-4
NH3                                             mg/m3                20                       20                       ISO 6974
Σημείο Δρόσου
t = μέση ελάχιστη μηνιαία      οC                        t-5                       t-5                       ISO 6327
Πηγή: NSCA – SGC
Τα οχήματα που κινούνται με βιοαέριο στη Σουηδία έχουν δυνατότητα ελεύθερης στάθμευσης σε πολλές πόλεις, απαλλάσσονται των τελών κυκλοφορίας και των διοδίων στην πόλη της Στοκχόλμης, ακόμη έχουν ετήσια φοροαπαλλαγή  € 450 αν είναι επαγγελματικά οχήματα, ενώ τα ταξί κινούνται σε ειδικές λωρίδες. Επίσης μείωση έως 40% φόρου σε εταιρείες που χρησιμοποιούν οχήματα που κινούνται με βιοαέριο. Τέλος δεν υπάρχει φορολογία στο βιοαέριο παρά μόνο ΦΠΑ.
Biogas_02-3
Εικόνες 2 & 3: Σταθμός ανεφοδιασμού λεωφορείων με Βιοαέριο και επιβατικό όχημα Βιοαερίου στη Σουηδία. (Πηγή: SGC, Margareta Persson)

Tα τελευταία χρόνια οι τάσεις ανάπτυξης του βιοαερίου κινούνται προς την κατεύθυνση δημιουργίας κεντρικών μονάδων συνδυασμένης χώνευσης αποβλήτων στη Δανία, την ανάπτυξη μονάδων μικρής κλίμακας αγροτο–κτηνοτροφικών στην Γερμανία και τη χρήση του βιοαερίου ως καυσίμου για μεταφορές ή την διοχέτευση στο δίκτυο του φυσικού αερίου στην Σουηδία, Ελβετία, Γερμανία και Αυστρία. Επίσης στην Δανία δίνεται έμφαση  στο διαχωρισμό του χωνεμένου υπολείμματος χρησιμοποιώντας κατάλληλες τεχνικές, όπως διαχωρισμό, ιζηματογένεση, υπερ-διήθηση, αντίστροφη όσμωση, stripper, για την παραγωγή:
α) 6% στερεού λιπάσματος, με αναλογία θρεπτικών συστατικών 17%Ν- 40%P- 20%K,
β) 20% υγρού λιπάσματος, με αναλογία  θρεπτικών συστατικών 83%Ν- 60%P- 80%K, και 74% νερού άρδευσης – τα ποσοστά εξαρτώνται από την πρώτη ύλη.
5/6/13
--
-
ΣΧΕΤΙΚΑ:

Πέμπτη, 25 Απριλίου 2013

Aviation biofuel to significantly cut carbon emissions .....

Watch Video (cctv)

Sinopec’s biofuel could be refined by palm oil and recycled cooking oil, or so called "gutter oil" which is made from discarded animal parts and vegetable grease.

Analysts say the aviation biofuel will reduce carbon emissions by as much as 92 percent compared with traditional jet fuels such as aviation kerosene. 

Aviation fuel consumption in China has recently maintained a steady growth rate of 13 percent annually, much higher than the global growth rate.


China Eastern Airlines notes that it holds the independent intellectual property rights over this newly developed biofuel technology, adding the company plans to increase the usage of biofuels on its commercial routes.
.cntv.cn
25/4/13
--
-
Related;

Δευτέρα, 8 Απριλίου 2013

Microalgae Produce More Oil Faster for Energy, Food or Products



 --
Apr. 7, 2013 — Scientists have described technology that accelerates microalgae's ability to produce many different types of renewable oils for fuels, chemicals, foods and personal-care products within days using standard industrial fermentation.
The presentation was part of the 245th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS) on April 7.

Walter Rakitsky, Ph.D, explained that microalgae are the original oil producers on earth, and that all of the oil-producing machinery present in higher plants resides within these single-cell organisms. Solazyme's breakthrough biotechnology platform unlocks the power of microalgae, achieving over 80 percent oil within each individual cell at commercial scale while changing the triglyceride oil paradigm by their ability to tailor the oil profiles by carbon chain and saturation. The ability to produce multiple oils in a matter of days out of one plant location using standard industrial fermentation is a game-changer. Solazyme's patented microalgae strains have become the workhorses of a growing industry focused on producing commercial quantities of microalgal oil for energy and food applications. Rakitsky is with Solazyme, Inc., of South San Francisco, Calif., one of the largest and most successful of those companies, which in 2011 supplied 100 percent microalgal-derived advanced biofuel for the first U.S. passenger jetliner flight powered by advanced biofuel.
In a keynote talk at the ACS meeting, Rakitsky described Solazyme's technology platform that enables the company to produce multiple oils from heart-healthy high-oleic oils for food to oils that are tailored to have specific performance and functionality benefits in industry, such as safer dielectric fluids and oils that are the highest-value cuts of the barrel for advanced fuels. The benefits of these oils far surpass those of other oils that are currently available today.
"For the first time in history, we have unlocked the ability to completely design and tailor oils," he said. "This breakthrough allows us to create oils optimized for everything from high-performance jet and diesel fuel to renewable chemicals to skin-care products and heart-healthy food oils. These oils could replace or enhance the properties of oils derived from the world's three dominant sources: petroleum, plants and animals."
Producing custom-tailored oils starts with optimizing the algae to produce the right kind of oil, and from there, the flexibility of the fermentation platform really comes into play. Solazyme is able to produce all of these oils in one location simply by switching out the strain of microalgae they use, Rakitsky explained. Unlike other algal oil production processes, in which algae grow in open ponds, Solazyme grows microalgae in total darkness in the same kind of fermentation vats used to produce vinegar, medicines and scores of other products. Instead of sunlight, energy for the microalgae's growth comes from low-cost, plant-based sugars. This gives the company a completely consistent, repeatable industrial process to produce tailored oil at scale.
Sugar from traditional sources such as sugarcane and corn has advantages for growing microalgae, especially their abundance and relatively low cost, Rakitsky said. The company's first fit-for-purpose commercial-scale production plant is under construction with their partner Bunge next to a sugarcane mill in Brazil. Initial production capacity will be 110,000 tons of microalgal oil annually, expanding up to 330,700 tons. In addition, the company has a production agreement with ADM in Clinton, Iowa, for 22,000 tons of oil, expandable to 110,000 tons. Ultimately, cellulosic sources of sugars from non-food plants or plant waste materials, like grasses or corn stover, may take over as those technologies reach the right scale and cost structures.
.sciencedaily.com
7/4/13
--
-
Related:

Τρίτη, 20 Νοεμβρίου 2012

Βιοκαύσιμα από φύκη διαθέσιμα για πρώτη φορά στην Καλιφόρνια

Οι οδηγοί στο Σαν Φρανσίσκο έγιναν, πριν από λίγες ημέρες, οι πρώτοι - στις Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες τουλάχιστον - οι οποίοι μπορούν να ανεφοδιάσουν το αυτοκίνητό τους με βιοντίζελ που παράγεται από φύκη.
Στο πλαίσιο ενός πιλοτικού προγράμματος, το "Biodiesel B20" διατίθεται από σταθμούς καυσίμων σε τέσσερις τοποθεσίες, στον Κόλπο του Σαν Φρανσίσκο, με την εμπορική ονομασία "Soladiesel".

Είναι φτιαγμένο κατά 80% από πετρέλαιο και 20% από φύκη, μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί σε οποιοδήποτε αυτοκίνητο κινείται με ντίζελ και, σύμφωνα με την εταιρία που το ανέπτυξε, παράγει λιγότερο νέφος και εκπομπές αερίων του θερμοκηπίου. Στοιχίζει 4,25 δολάρια ανά γαλόνι, δηλαδή έχει περίπου την ίδια τιμή με το ντίζελ κίνησης. Θα πωλείται πιλοτικά για περίπου ένα μήνα και έπειτα, ανάλογα με την ανταπόκριση, θα ληφθεί απόφαση για συνέχιση ή διακοπή του προγράμματος.
«Σήμερα, σε αυτό το πρατήριο, βάζουμε τα θεμέλια για κάτι καινούριο», δήλωσε ο Ματ Χόρτον, διευθύνων σύμβουλος της εταιρίας καυσίμων Propel Fuels, μέσω της οποίας διατίθεται το προϊόν. «Ελπίζουμε να φτιάξουμε εκατοντάδες τέτοια πρατήρια στην Καλιφόρνια».
Το όραμά του δεν αποκλείεται μια μέρα να γίνει πραγματικότητα. Σήμερα περισσότεροι από ένα εκατομμύριο πολίτες της Καλιφόρνια οδηγούν αυτοκίνητα, τα οποία μπορούν να κινηθούν με εναλλακτικά καύσιμα. Σύμφωνα με το Χόρτον, ωστόσο, δεν υπάρχουν αρκετά τέτοια καύσιμα και η γραμμή ανεφοδιασμού είναι σχεδόν ανύπαρκτη.
Το βιοντίζελ που παράγεται από την αμερικανική Solazyme έχει χρησιμοποιηθεί σε δοκιμές του στρατού και από βιομηχανίες. Σύμφωνα με τον αντιπρόεδρο της εταιρίας, το καύσιμο παρασκευάζεται σε δεξαμενές από ανοξείδωτο ατσάλι, με μια διαδικασία ζύμωσης, κατά την οποία ένας συγκεκριμένος οργανισμός (δεν αποκαλύπτεται η ονομασία του) αναμειγνύεται με ζάχαρη.
Το πετρέλαιο που προκύπτει υπόκειται σε επεξεργασία, από την οποία παρασκευάζονται είδη καυσίμου για διαφορετικές χρήσεις. Η εταιρία υποστηρίζει ότι το τελικό προϊόν παράγει 30% λιγότερα σωματίδια, 20% λιγότερο μονοξείδιο του άνθρακα και 10% λιγότεροι υδρογονάνθρακες σε σχέση με άλλα καύσιμα ντίζελ και βιοντίζελ. 
.naftemporiki gr
20/11/12
----
ΣΧΕΤΙΚΑ:

 

Τετάρτη, 31 Οκτωβρίου 2012

Biofuel breakthrough: Quick cook method turns algae into oil



ScienceDaily (Oct. 31, 2012) — ANN ARBOR—It looks like Mother Nature was wasting her time with a multimillion-year process to produce crude oil. Michigan Engineering researchers can "pressure-cook" algae for as little as a minute and transform an unprecedented 65 percent of the green slime into biocrude.

"We're trying to mimic the process in nature that forms crude oil with marine organisms," said Phil Savage, an Arthur F. Thurnau professor and a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Michigan.
The findings will be presented Nov. 1 at the 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Annual Meeting in Pittsburgh.
Savage's ocean-going organism of choice is the green marine micro-alga of the genus Nannochloropsis.
To make their one-minute biocrude, Savage and Julia Faeth, a doctoral student in Savage's lab, filled a steel pipe connector with 1.5 milliliters of wet algae, capped it and plunged it into 1,100-degree Fahrenheit sand. The small volume ensured that the algae was heated through, but with only a minute to warm up, the algae's temperature should have just grazed the 550-degree mark before the team pulled the reactor back out.
Previously, Savage and his team heated the algae for times ranging from 10 to 90 minutes. They saw their best results, with about half of the algae converted to biocrude, after treating it for 10 to 40 minutes at 570 degrees.
Why are the one-minute results so much better? Savage and Faeth won't be sure until they have done more experiments, but they have some ideas.
"My guess is that the reactions that produce biocrude are actually must faster than previously thought," Savage said.
Faeth suggests that the fast heating might boost the biocrude by keeping unwanted reactions at bay.
"For example, the biocrude might decompose into substances that dissolve in water, and the fast heating rates might discourage that reaction," Faeth said.
The team points out that shorter reaction times mean that the reactors don't have to be as large.
"By reducing the reactor volume, the cost of building a biocrude production plant also decreases," Faeth said, though both she and Savage cautioned that they couldn't say for sure whether the new method is faster and cheaper until the process is further developed.
Current commercial makers of algae-based fuel first dry the algae and then extract the natural oil. But at over $20 per gallon, this fuel is a long way from the gas pump.
"Companies know that that approach is not economical, so they are looking at approaches for using wet algae, as are we," Savage said.
One of the advantages of the wet method is that it doesn't just extract the existing fat from the algae—it also breaks down proteins and carbohydrates. The minute method did this so successfully that the oil contained about 90 percent of the energy in the original algae.
"That result is near the upper bound of what is possible," Savage said.
Before biocrude can be fed into the existing refinery system for petroleum, it needs pre-refining to get rid of the extra oxygen and nitrogen atoms that abound in living things. The Savage lab also is developing better methods for this leg of biofuel production, breaking the record with a biocrude that was 97 percent carbon and hydrogen earlier this year. A paper on this work is currently under review.
Once producing biofuel from algae is economical, researchers estimate that an area the size of New Mexico could provide enough oil to match current U.S. petroleum consumption. And, unlike corn produced for ethanol—which already accounts for half that area—the algae won't need to occupy good farmland, thriving in brackish ponds instead.
The research, "The Effects of Heating Rate and Reaction Time on Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae," was funded by the Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation program of the National Science Foundation. The university is pursuing patent protection for the intellectual property, and is seeking commercialization partners to help bring the technology to market.
Abstract: https://aiche.confex.com/aiche/2012/webprogram/Paper280193.html
Savage Lab: http://savageresearchlab.wordpress.com
EDITORS: Watch and link to a video about Savage's work on biofuels at http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=dvGssEM4bLg#
-----
Biofuel breakthrough: Quick cook method turns algae into oil

Παρασκευή, 5 Οκτωβρίου 2012

Land sold off and used for biofuels could have fed 1 billion people – report

Indian labourers work in a field of Jatropha in the village of Hassan, some 250 kms from Bangalore. Jatropha, a wild shrub that grows abundantly across India, has been hailed as an eco-friendly solution to the energy needs. (AFP Photo / Mission Biofuels India)
2 million kilometers of foreign purchased land in developing countries is either idle or used for Western biofuel production, according to a British charity. Oxfam's report estimates an area the size of London is sold every six days.
The report states that between 2000 and 2010, 60% of investment in agricultural land by foreign traders occurred in developing countries with hunger problems.

Yet two thirds of those investors plan to export everything they produce. While 60% of deals are to produce crops that can be used for biofuels. Land can also be left idle, as speculators wait for its value to increase.  
Oxfam estimates that this land could have fed 1 billion people.
According to the International Land Coalition, an NGO based in Italy, 106 million hectares of land in developing countries has been acquired by foreign investors in a period between 2000-2010, with some disastrous results.
30% of all land in Liberia has been handed out in large scale concessions in the last 5 years, while up to 63% of all available land in Cambodia has been passed on to private companies.

Farmers forced out

Oxfam emphasizes that much of the land sold off was already being used for small scale and subsistence farming or other types of natural resource use.
The report dismissed claims by the World Bank that most of the sold land remains idle, waiting to be developed. In fact most agricultural land deals target quality farm land, particularly land that is irrigated and offers good access to markets.
A 2010 study by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) – the official monitoring and evaluation body of the World Bank – supported Oxfam’s findings.
It found that 30% of World Bank projects involved involuntary resettlement. The study estimated that 1 million people are involuntarily resettled in projects financed by the World Bank.
In some cases people were violently evicted from their land without consultation or compensation.
Barbara Stocking, Oxfam’s chief executive, told British newspaper the Guardian that, “The rush for land is out of control and some of the world’s poorest people are suffering hunger, violence and greater poverty as a result. The World Bank is in a unique position to help stop land grabs becoming one of the biggest scandals of the century.”
Internally displaced children line up to receive a food ration at a food distribution point at a voluntary centre in Mogadishu, Somalia. (AFP Photo / Mohamed Dahir)
Internally displaced children line up to receive a food ration at a food distribution point at a voluntary centre in Mogadishu, Somalia. (AFP Photo / Mohamed Dahir)

Freeze investments

Oxfam has urged the World Bank to freeze its investments in large scale land acquisitions in poor nations.
In the last decade the World Bank has tripled its support for land projects to $6-$8 billion a year, but it does not provide data on how much of this goes to land acquisition or any connection between lending and conflict in a country.
Oxfam wants the World Bank to make sure that information about land deals is publicly accessible, that communities are informed in advance and have the right to agree to or refuse to participate in projects.
Stocking said that the UK, as one of the banks largest shareholders and next year’s president of the G8, should try and get these land deals frozen.
“The UK should also show leadership in reversing flawed biofuels targets, which are a main driver for land and are diverting food into fuel. It can also play a crucial role as president of the G8 next year by putting food and hunger at the heart of the agenda,” Stocking said.
But in a statement released to the Guardian, the international Finance Corporation (IFC), the World Bank’s private lending arm, defended its past transactions.
“IFC does not finance land acquisitions for speculative purposes. We invest in productive agricultural and forestry enterprises that can be land intensive to help provide the food and fiber the world needs.”
http://rt.com/news/world-bank-developing-world-689/
5/10/12
----------

Τρίτη, 4 Σεπτεμβρίου 2012

US and EU must change biofuel targets to avert food crisis, says Nestlé chief

Nestlé, the world's largest food company, has added its weight to calls by the UN and development groups for the US and EU to change their biofuel targets because of looming food shortages and price rises.
"We say no food for fuel," said Paul Bulcke, chief executive of Nestlé, at the end of the World Water Week conference in Sweden. "Agricultural food-based biofuel is an aberration. We say that the EU and US should put money behind the right biofuels."

Under laws intended to reduce foreign oil imports, 40% of US maize (corn) harvest must be used to make biofuels, even though one of the deepest droughts in the past 100 years is expected to reduce crop yields significantly. In addition, EU countries are expected to move towards drawing 10-20% of their energy supply for transport from biofuels to reduce carbon emissions.
But Nestlé, which has 470 food factories around the world and 25% of the world's bottled water market, says clean economy and US energy independence should not be pursued at the expense of food supplies or massive price increases.
"[Using biofuels] was well-intentioned at the time, but when you have better information then you have to be coherent," said Bulcke. "You have to know when to say: 'Stop here'. Now we see, too, that the carbon [reduction] element of biofuels is not as clear as it was intended to be."
Bulcke said Nestlé had lobbied the US and EU governments to change their quotas. "We have said [it] to [the] US government, but politically it's hard. We are an important food company and, yes, we do have a voice. We try to be vocal with our convictions."
He argued water is the world's coming crisis because, without better use of it, food supplies – which the UN predicts must increase around 50% in the next 40 years – will be severely limited.
"The relationship between food and water is clear," said Bulcke. "Water should have a value. There is so much much waste in the system. Upstream on farms, industry, food waste, food spoilage. Agriculture is responsible for 70% of all water being used globally, and 90% in some developing countries." Water is one cause of the food crisis. Governments took their eyes off the ball. For years, research and development investments were very low, at 1.5% annually. We have a crisis in the making. We cannot continue to use water in the same wasteful way as before.
"What is environmentally unsustainable today will become socially unsustainable in a not so distant future," added Bulcke. "We risk up to 30% shortfalls in global cereal production due to water shortage by 2025. It seems as if we will have to go through a massive global crisis before becoming aware that we cannot leave a paradox of this importance unresolved.
"The main challenge – water for farming – is also the main opportunity. Saving potentials in agriculture are still huge; physiological needs of plants amount to only 40-50% of actual withdrawals today. And there are more savings of water possible further down the value chain."
According to Nestlé, which operates in 86 countries and is the world's most profitable corporation, it is moving strongly to conserve water, both by helping farmers save waste by growing crops that need less, and by improving factory efficiency. It has also lowered its milk wastage dramatically, effectively saving its per-dollar water use, which has been reduced from 4.5 litres in 2002 to 1.5 litres today.
Earlier this month, UN FAO director general José Graziano da Silva said suspension of the biofuel quota would allow more of the crop to be diverted for food production. "The worst drought for 50 years is inflicting huge damage on the US maize crop, with serious consequences for the overall international food supply," he wrote in the Financial Times.
euractiv.com
4/9/12
-

Οι νεκροί Έλληνες στα μακεδονικά χώματα σάς κοιτούν με οργή

«Παριστάνετε τα "καλά παιδιά" ελπίζοντας στη στήριξη του διεθνή παράγοντα για να παραμείνετε στην εξουσία», ήταν η κατηγορία πο...