Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα especies autóctonas. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων
Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα especies autóctonas. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων

Κυριακή, 21 Δεκεμβρίου 2014

Turistas podrían causar un desastre ecológico en la Antártida

Los ambientalistas advierten de que la creciente popularidad del turismo polar podría amenazar seriamente al ecosistema de la región: los visitantes traen bacterias patógenas, que pondrían en peligro la salud de los pingüinos de la Antártida.

Los científicos advierten que los turistas en la región polar, sin saberlo, pueden desempeñar un papel fatal en el futuro del ecosistema de la región. Junto con los visitantes, en el continente entran bacterias y virus contra los que la fauna local no tiene inmunidad, informa 'New Scientist'.

"El efecto de la creciente industria del turismo polar, así como de la presencia de los investigadores, no puede pasar desapercibida", afirma Ray Grimaldi, un investigador de la Universidad de Otago (Nueva Zelanda). Uno de los ejemplos sería la gripe aviar, que causó una epidemia y la muerte masiva en las colonias de pingüinos papúa en el 2006 y 2008.

En el verano del 2014 en la colonia de pingüinos de la costa del golfo de la Esperanza también se registró un brote de una enfermedad desconocida. A causa de esta, los pingüinos perdían las plumas y morían rápidamente.

  actualidad.rt.com/ciencias

21/12/14
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Τετάρτη, 3 Δεκεμβρίου 2014

Una operación eliminará ratas para conservar la biodiversidad de una isla

  Photo rohrmannspace.net
La mayor operación de eliminación de ratas con veneno en la historia empezará en febrero para conservar la biodiversidad de una de las Islas Georgias, en el Atlántico Sur que pertenecen al Reino Unido.

Hace dos siglos, antes de la llegada de los roedores con los barcos, en la isla se reproducían millones de aves marinas, en particular, los albatroses y los pingüinos rey.

La creciente población de las ratas redujo el número de los pájaros en más del 90%.

La operación se organiza bajo el amparo de la fundación ecologista escocesa South Georgia Heritage Trust.

Está previsto que tres helicópteros arrojen a la isla 95 toneladas de veneno.

El jefe del proyecto, Tony Martin, informó al periódico The Guardian, que el raticida, que se diseminará por una superficie de 364 kilómetros cuadrados, es casi inofensivo para las aves.

Después los ecólogos supervisarán la isla para estimar si quedan ratas supervivientes.

En 2011 y 2013 se llevaron a cabo las fases previas de la operación, declaradas exitosas, pero el número de roedores eliminados no se difundió.

 http://sp.ria.ru/international/20141202/163414168.html
2/12/14
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Noticias relacionadas:


  • Over 100 million seabirds inhabit South Georgia, a 3,500 km2 island in the South Atlantic Ocean....

 For over 200 years the island’s birds have suffered predation by introduced Norway rats and mice, and over the last 100 years, habitat degradation from introduced reindeer. A step-wise rat eradication programme using bait pellets, the largest of its kind to be attempted worldwide, is being carried out by the South Georgia Heritage Trust. Phase One (in March 2011) successfully cleared rats from one part (10%) of the island; Phase Two (2013–2015) aims to rid the entire island of rodents. Reindeer are to be removed in 2013 and 2014 by a South Georgia Government initiative...................http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/494

Δευτέρα, 3 Νοεμβρίου 2014

Bird populations across Europe declining rapidly

Bird populations across Europe have experienced sharp declines - a staggering 421 million birds over the past 30 years - with the majority of losses from the most common species, a research shows.

The decline in bird populations can be linked to modern farming methods, deterioration of the quality of the environment and habitat fragmentation, the study noted.

Around 90 percent of these losses were from the 36 most common and widespread species, including house sparrows, skylarks, grey partridges and starlings.


"It is very worrying that the most common species of bird are declining rapidly because it is this group of birds that people benefit from the most," said Richard Inger from the University of Exeter in Britain.

  • Birds provide multiple benefits to society. They help to control agricultural pests, are important dispersers of seeds, and scavenging species play a key role in the removal of carcasses from the environment.
The study brought together data on 144 species of European birds from thousands of individual surveys in 25 different countries.

The researchers noted that thanks to direct conservation action and legal protection in Europe, the numbers of some less common birds have risen.

The numbers of great tits, robins, blue tits and blackbirds were all shown to be increasing.

Populations of rarer species, including marsh harriers, ravens, buzzards and stone curlews have also increased in recent years.

The conservation and legal protection of all birds and their habitats in tandem are essential to reverse declines in the most common species of birds, the researchers highlighted.

"This is a warning from birds throughout Europe. It is clear that the way we are managing the environment is unsustainable for many of our most familiar species," concluded Richard Gregory from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds in Britain.
Source: dayafterindia.com
[indian.ruvr.ru]

3/11/14

Πέμπτη, 16 Οκτωβρίου 2014

Australia targets wildlife extinction

Australia's Environment Minister Greg Hunt has pledged to end the extinction of native mammal species by 2020, with a focus on culprits such as feral cats.

Hunt said Australia had the worst rate of mammal loss in the world and the nation's "greatest failure" in environmental policy was protecting threatened species.

"Our flora and fauna are part of what makes us Australian," he said in a speech late Wednesday.


"I don't want the extinction of species such as the numbat, the quokka, the bilby, on our collective consciences," he said, referring to mammals that are little-known outside Australia compared to other marsupials like the kangaroo.

Hunt said the government had been putting in place a "different approach" to halting the extinction of native wildlife, including the appointment of a Threatened Species Commissioner to spearhead the efforts.

Australia has some 749 species of plants, mammals, birds, frogs, fish, reptiles and other animals listed as threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, with the numbers rising each year, Hunt said.

Over the past two decades, 53 land-based species moved to a higher threat category, but only 15 moved lower.

A study released earlier this year showed Australia's mammal extinction rate was the highest in the world, with more than 10 percent of species wiped out since Europeans settled the country two centuries ago.

  • Feral cats were identified as the main culprit, although feral foxes were also responsible. Other factors contributing to the extinctions include climate change, fire and habitat destruction.

Australian states and territories have separate threatened species lists and are "struggling with similar problems," Hunt said, adding that legislation is failing to arrest the declines.

"I have set a goal of ending the loss of mammal species by 2020.

"What's more, I want to see improvements in at least 20 of those species between now and then," he said.

The measures would focus on major threats such as those posed by feral cats, which number between 10 to 20 million across Australia and kill countless native animals every night.

  • Cats were first introduced to Australia by British immigrants in the late 1700s as domestic pets. But they went wild and spread across the continent over the next 100 years.

One measure under consideration is the development of a "new, humane bait" called Curiosity, which Hunt described as a "potential game-changer."

Apart from tackling the feral-cat threat, Hunt said the government was committing $2.9 million to the recovery of the endangered Tasmanian devil.

Sources: AFP - globaltimes.cn
16-17/10/14
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Τετάρτη, 15 Οκτωβρίου 2014

Guangzhou using invasive species against mosquito-borne fever

Southern Chinese authorities' introduction of an invasive fish species to combat a surge in dengue fever has sparked fears that the practice will break the environmental balance.

The water bureau in Guangzhou Municipality, China's third-largest city, has reacted to the mosquito-borne disease by adding mosquitofish to "controllable static waters." While the fish are named for their diet of mosquito larvae, they are also known for harming indigenous species worldwide.


Professors of environmental studies at local universities including the the renowned Sun Yat-Sen University have cautioned against the move.

"The best solution to the dengue problem is to improve the overall environment. Introducing foreign species must be meticulous. The impacts must be controlled," said Li Yanliang, chairman of the National Aquatic Wildlife Conservation Association.

Although the bureau said limiting the number of mosquitofish would ensure that the environment is not affected, it told Xinhua it did not know how many of the fish it had thrown into Guangzhou waters.

Local media reported one district in Guangzhou received more than 54,000 mosquitofish.

Guangzhou has seen a rise in dengue fever cases since September, with over 27,000 cases reported. 

Source:Xinhua - globaltimes.cn
15/10/14
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Δευτέρα, 29 Σεπτεμβρίου 2014

Commission welcomes the Council's adoption of the Invasive Alien Species Regulation

European Commission, Statement, Brussels, 29 September 2014:

Today the EU adopted legislation that will tackle the rapidly growing threat to biodiversity from invasive species. The Regulation is a crucial step towards achieving the EU's 2020 biodiversity targets, while also delivering on a commitment under the Convention on Biological Diversity to establish rules to address the threats posed by these species.
European Environment Commissioner Janez Potočnik said: "This new Regulation fills a long-recognised gap in EU biodiversity protection.
It is carefully targeted, focusing on the most serious threats from invasive species. By working together within the EU to tackle a problem estimated to cost EUR 12 billion every year, we are taking a decisive step towards meeting our objective of halting the loss of biodiversity in the EU by 2020."
The Regulation equips Europe with an effective system that will prevent the introduction and spread of species that can cause significant adverse impacts on the environment, the economy, and human health. The system will be based on a list of species of Union concern, to be drawn up with the Member States on the basis of comprehensive risk assessments and robust scientific evidence. The list will focus on the species that cause the most serious damage. When considering species for listing, their socio-economic benefits, and the concerns of established commercial sectors, will be taken fully into account.

Background
Alien species are plants, animals, fungi and micro-organisms that have been transported across ecological barriers such as mountain ranges, or oceans as a result of human intervention, and have become established in an area outside their natural range.
About a quarter of these species are brought into Europe intentionally, but most arrive by accident. There are currently more than 12 000 alien species in the European environment. In their new environment, some spread rapidly and become invasive alien species (IAS), causing significant damage to biodiversity, human health or the economy. Roughly 10-15 % of alien species arriving in Europe eventually become invasive.
These species are a major cause of biodiversity loss, and they can also cause significant damage to human health and the economy. Examples include the American bullfrog, allergy-causing ragweed and musk rats that damage infrastructure.
Invasive alien species are estimated to cost EUR 12 billion annually in health care and animal health costs, crop yield losses, fish stock losses, damage to infrastructure, damage to the navigability of rivers, and damage to protected species.
 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-14-286_en.htm?locale=en 
29/9/14
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Παρασκευή, 23 Μαΐου 2014

BLUEFIN TUNA: THE LONG PATH OF RECOVERY

Bluefin Tuna is an emblematic species, fished and appreciated all across the globe. But when I took office four years ago, the state of the stocks was extremely alarming. We were exporting and eating more bluefin tuna than we were expected to catch!

In 2012 we managed to take action at global level: we implemented, within the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), a very strict recovery plan based on advice by scientists.

Quotas have been reduced, our fleet has become smaller and the fishing period has been shortened – this year, it will start next Monday 26 May and already close a month later, on 24 June.

The rules are there, but work remains to be done. We will only be able to preserve bluefin tuna if all actors play by the rules and put the priority on controls. 


The European Commission, the European Fisheries Control Agency (EFCA) and Member States dedicate tremendous resources to enforce the rules. For the 2014 season, we will deploy sea and air patrols to control that the fishing season and quotas are respected. We will monitor catches and inspect caging operations in tuna farms and, if required, take the necessary action to avoid overfishing.

Today we can already see first signs that efforts are paying off. The situation is very different from 2010 when the stock was close to extinction. I am confident that we are on the right path – the path to recovery.

23/5/14 

Παρασκευή, 18 Απριλίου 2014

New snake species found at Mt. Qomolangma known in the West as Mount Everest

Chinese scientists have discovered a new species of brownish pit viper in the largest scientific study since the 1970s on wildlife at Mount Qomolangma, known in the West as Mount Everest.

A genetic analysis revealed Protobothrops Himalayanus, which was first spotted at Jilong Valley in southern Tibet Autonomous Region in 2012, to be a new snake species, Hu Huijian, co-chief of the research team, told Xinhua on Thursday.

The new species was named in honor of its home, the Himalayas, said Hu.


The discovery, published in "Asian Herpetological Research," an international authoritative academic journal, is more evidence of Tibet's biodiversity, he added.

Currently, there are 12 valid species in the genus Protobothrops, of which seven are known to inhabit China and many of them prefer mountain areas at high elevations.
Source: Xinhua

17/4/14
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Τετάρτη, 16 Απριλίου 2014

Invasive alien species: "The damage and costs continue to increase"


One of the worst threats to Europe's biodiversity and ecosystems is plant and animals species coming from other countries and continents, which often cause the near extinction of native species. On 16 April MEPs approved new rules to tackle this issue. “Invasive alien species are the second most significant threat to biodiversity after habitat loss and they are also recognised as a major cause of species extinction,” said Pavel Poc, the MEP responsible for steering the proposal through the EP.


Globalisation and the increased use of international transport have made it easier for species to spread to other areas. Some of these are harmless, but others prove detrimental to local animal and plant life and unbalance the ecosystem. The Parliament votes on Wednesday 16 April on new legislation to deal with this issue. Mr Poc, a Czech member of the S&D group, commented: "The new measures should prevent new invasive alien species from entering the EU and to deal more effectively with the ones that are already established in Europe.”

Under the proposal a list of invasive alien species that could prove damaging would be established and those species should not be introduced, transported, placed on the market, offered, kept, grown or released into the environment. “Efforts to minimise the impact of the invasive alien species will be coherent in the member states, cover all of the EU and will be better coordinated, which means that their overall effectiveness will be improved,” Mr Poc said.

Some of hese species can also prove a threat to human health, as they can cause health problems such asthma or allergies and are potential carriers of various diseasesa like the Dengue fever propagated by the Asian tiger mosquito, which first emerged in Europe in 1979 through a shipment of goods from China.

"Invasive alien species are estimated to cost the European Union at least €12 billion per year and the damage and the costs continue to increase,” said Mr Poc.
[europarl.europa.eu]
16/4/14
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Invasive alien species: MEPs reach agreement with the Greek Presidency

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Παρασκευή, 28 Μαρτίου 2014

Environment: Commission takes Greece to court over failure to protect iconic species

European Commission, Press release, Brussels, 28 March 2014:
 The European Commission is taking Greece to Court for a failure to provide adequate protection for endangered sea turtles. The case concerns developments in Kyparissia Bay in the Western Peloponnese, one of the most important nesting beaches for caretta caretta loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean, and an area protected under EU legislation. A high number of developments and construction activities are being tolerated and given permits in the area, and the developments are having a significant negative effect on the endangered turtles. On the recommendation of Environment Commissioner Janez Potočnik, the Commission is referring the case to the EU Court of Justice.

Under European legislation, Member States must establish and implement an effective system of strict protection for species such as the sea turtle caretta caretta, a species that is under threat all around the world. These measures oblige Member States to ensure that species are not disturbed during their breeding period, and to limit any activity that might lead to a deterioration of the animals' breeding sites. Kyparissia Bay is protected under Natura 2000, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas established under the 1992 Habitats Directive. The aim of the Natura legislation is to assure the long-term well-being of Europe's most endangered species and their habitats

The Commission first raised its concerns in a letter of formal notice to the Greek government in October 2011, and repeated them in a 'reasoned opinion' one year later. Greece acknowledged the need for measures and prepared an Action Programme and a timetable for its implementation. But almost two years after the preparation of the programme little progress has been made. The Commission has learned that construction developments are continuing and that the turtles' habitats protected under EU legislation are suffering as a result. As the 2014 nesting season is about to begin, it has therefore been decided to call Greece before the EU Court of Justice.

Background
Caretta caretta loggerhead turtles are mainly carnivorous animals that grow up to a metre long and can weigh up to 170 kilos. It is thought that 80% of the loggerheads nesting in the Mediterranean now nest on the coasts of the Ionian Sea, mostly on the island of Zakynthos, on six beaches that total only five kilometres in length, and in Kyparissia Bay. There are between 800 and 2000 nests each year. Loggerhead turtles are an endangered species, classified as "facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future." They travel vast distances at sea, before returning to nesting areas. Females lay eggs in nests 2 - 5 times in one breeding season, returning to breed every couple of years.
[europa.eu]
28/3/14
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Πέμπτη, 6 Μαρτίου 2014

Invasive alien species: MEPs reach agreement with the Greek Presidency

Plans to prevent the introduction or halt the spread of “invasive alien species” of plants, animals or insects that cause ecological and economic damage were agreed by MEPs and the Greek Presidency of the Council on Wednesday. The draft legislation, which would require EU member states to coordinate their efforts, provides for a ban on species declared to be of “Union concern”.

“Invasive alien species cause damage worth at least €12 billion every year in Europe and many member states already have to spend considerable resources in dealing with them”, said MEP Pavel Poc (S&D, CZ) who is steering the legislation through Parliament.


“Their efforts are very often not effective simply because those species do not respect geographical borders. Cooperation between the member states is therefore crucial. The negotiations were very difficult and we had only limited time to strike a deal. That's why I am happy to say that today's negotiations were successful” he added.

The draft legislation will require EU member states to carry out an analysis of the pathways of introduction and spread of invasive alien species (IAS) and set up surveillance systems and action plans. Official checks at EU borders would also be stepped up. For IAS that are already widespread, member states would have to draw up management plans.

Alien species of “Union concern”

Species deemed to be of “Union concern” would be placed on a list of those that should not be introduced, transported, placed on the market, offered, kept, grown or released into the environment.

The Presidency accepted Parliament’s view that the IAS list should not be capped at only 50 species. Priority on the list would go to IAS which are expected to become a problem and those that cause the most damage. MEPs also inserted provisions for tackling IAS of concern for single member states. Species that are native to a part of the EU but begin to invade others would be tackled through enhanced regional cooperation between member states, facilitated by the European Commission.

Member states would have to decide appropriate penalties for breaches of the legislation. Where authorised by the Commission, they could grant specialized establishments permits to carry out certain commercial activities with IAS.

MEPs also insisted that a dedicated scientific forum should be established to advise on the scientific aspects of enforcing the new rules, and on applying the “polluter pays” principle to the recovery of restoration costs.

Background

According to the European Commission, IAS are a major and growing cause of biodiversity loss and species extinction. They can be vectors of diseases or themselves cause health problems such as asthma, dermatitis and allergies. They can also damage infrastructure and facilities, hamper forestry and cause agricultural losses. IAS cost the EU an estimated €12 billion per year.

Next steps

If endorsed by the committee of member states’ permanent representatives (COREPER) on Friday 7 March, the agreement is to be put to a vote in the Environment Committee on 19 March.
 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/el/news-room/content/20140304IPR37510/
5/3/14
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Τρίτη, 28 Ιανουαρίου 2014

Una especie invasora destruye hasta el 95% de la biodiversidad en el Atlántico

Los peces leones en menos de 35 años invadieron el área oeste del Atlántico, superior al territorio de EEUU, suplantando a otros predadores y destruyendo hasta el 95% de las especies, informó la Universidad de Oregon.
“El hábitat de los peces leones en el Atlántico que llegaron a la zona en los años 80 del siglo XX supera el territorio de EEUU. Estos peces agresivos con radios venenosos en las aletas que no tienen enemigos naturales en el Atlántico devoran todos los animales más pequeños: otros peces, gambas, cangrejos y pulpos. Además, pueden pasarse periodos prolongados sin comer”, dice el informe.

Los investigadores de la Universidad de Oregon y otros centros científicos realizaron estudios durante 18 meses cerca de las islas Bahamas. Los datos recopilados muestran que la disminución de la población de los peces leones de entre el 75 y el 95% lleva a un aumento de entre el 50 y el 70% de las especies autóctonas de los arrecifes.
“Significa que al crear zonas de seguridad o limitando el número de los peces leones en algunos arrecifes podremos restablecer las especies autóctonas”, precisó la ecóloga Stephanie Green.
Los peces leones provienen de los océanos Pacífico e Índico y el mar Rojo.
http://sp.ria.ru/science_technology_space/20140127/159083431.html
27/1/14
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Οι νεκροί Έλληνες στα μακεδονικά χώματα σάς κοιτούν με οργή

«Παριστάνετε τα "καλά παιδιά" ελπίζοντας στη στήριξη του διεθνή παράγοντα για να παραμείνετε στην εξουσία», ήταν η κατηγορία πο...